Ulga’s research is just about complete. Now, comes the worrying. She is concerned that the multiple studies she conducted over the course of six months might produce inconsistent and less-than-stable results. What is Ulga concerned about?
a. the generalizability of her research
b. the reliability of her research
c. the correlation of her research
d. the validity of her research
You are conducting a study on the role of Baptist church leaders in determining voter patterns in small rural communities. Which one of these theoretical frameworks would best fit your project?
a. ethnographic research
b. social learning theory
c. multistep flow
d. survey research
Which of these scenarios provides the best example of a problem uses and gratifications theory would address?
a. An analysis of how documentary filmmaking represents indigenous tribes.
b. An analysis of the impact of violent video games on teenagers.
c. An analysis of why housewives watch soap operas in the afternoon.
d. An analysis of radio’s negative effects on childhood attention spans.
The effects of media violence are one of the most enduring topics in the annals of media effects research.
The small and unrepresentative samples used in experimental studies, which often consist of college students in introductory classes or the children of university professors, raise questions about generalizability.
Through research, it is clear that people’s intended use the media is for which of the following purposes?
a. to get more work accomplished
b. to entertain and relax themselves
c. to invest in new technologies
d. to further educate themselves
Which of these definitions best encapsulates the goal of media effects research?
a. To help individuals understand how hegemony is produced and maintained through media.
b. To help individuals understand how they can use media to enrich their daily lives.
c. To help understand how media exposure can produce certain behavioral or attitude change.
d. To help understand how technological innovations create massive social changes.
Julia’s management team is conducting research in which they’ll create profiles of media content and identify trends in content over time. Their main objective is to find out how much sexually explicit content there is in prime-time cable television. Their task will be time-consuming, and so they will only be taking a limited sample (probably one week’s worth). What type of research are Julia and her management team conducting?
a. content analysis
c. big data
Which of the following BEST explains Joshua’s avoidance of long hours of video game play so that his mother does not take away his PlayStation altogether?
a. cultivation theory
b. the theory of limited effects
c. social learning theory
d. uses and gratifications
The degree to which we are actually measuring what we intend to measure is the ________ of the research.
Your research team is trying to develop a comprehensive report on how often local television news talks about the Republican candidate for state governor. How would you investigate this problem?
a. You would hold a focus group to have television viewers talk about which candidate they supported.
b. You would use quantitative methods that counted the number of times Republican candidates are mentioned.
c. You would use a quantitative survey to determine which candidate viewers of each television station preferred.
d. You would use qualitative methods to determine which political party television news staff and reporters supported.
The impact of new media on psychological well-being remains _________.
c. very negative
d. very positive
Which of the following is TRUE of inductive research methods?
a. Critical theorists disfavor them.
b. They cannot be interpretive.
c. They are often deductive.
d. They can also be interpretive.
One type of content analysis (qualitative) counts the acts, and another type of content analysis (quantitative) examines how the acts should be regarded.
The theory of limited effects holds that the effects of the mass media on individuals are _______.
You have been assigned to research behaviors related to various reactions to different types of media. The one firm directive you have been given is that you must observe the subjects in their natural settings. Which of the following is TRUE about the research you will be conducting?
a. It must not include either qualitative or quantitative methods.
b. It must include quantitative methods.
c. It must include both qualitative and quantitative methods.
d. It must include qualitative methods.
Which of the following is TRUE of studies conducted on media’s effect on violent behavior?
a. No study has ever effectively correlated media exposure to violent behavior.
b. Researchers disagree over the validity of methods used and studies conducted on media exposure and violent behavior.
c. All studies point to a correlation of media exposure and violent behavior.
d. Researchers almost unanimously agree on the validity of methods used and studies conducted on media exposure and violent behavior.
Which of the following is TRUE of experimental research?
a. It cannot rule out competing explanations for the results.
b. It studies media effects under carefully controlled conditions.
c. There is never a question about generalizability.
d. The division into groups of experimental subjects must not be random.
Some social scientists use quantitative methods to enumerate their findings and analyze statistical relationships between dependent and independent variables.
Which of the following is TRUE of administrative research?
a. It utilizes inductive methods.
b. It can result in a “criticism” of the media.
c. It critiques the basic foundations of existing media institutions.
d. It is interpretive.
Roberta has come up with an idea for a gadget that will prevent headphone wires from tangling up into knots inside of users’ pockets. She is so excited about the idea, that she decided to get a patent for it. How long does Roberta have before others can start using her idea for this gadget?
a. 5 years
b. 10 years
c. 50 years
d. 20 years
Intellectual property laws protect the original ideas of individuals and institutions through patents, copyrights, and trademarks.
Which of the following would NOT be protected by the First Amendment’s Free Speech clause?
a. watching adult pornography in the privacy of your home
b. broadcasting a swear-filled political speech over the radio waves
c. walking door-to-door “selling” your religious views to others
d. speaking out in protest against a celebrity’s stance on marijuana
Margot’s company is a huge player in its industry of recording musical artists. Her company, combined with just three others of similar size and importance, control about 95% of the entire industry. Which of the following can be said about this situation?
a. It is an example of a monopoly.
b. It is an example of an oligopoly.
c. It is in violation of the First Amendment.
d. It is in violation of the fair use doctrine.
Jeremy’s real estate investment company has divisions that cover sales, rentals, inspections, renovation, financing, real estate legal services. Which of the following terms applies to Jeremy’s company?
a. horizontal integration
d. vertical integration
Which of the following BEST encapsulates the concept of fair use?
a. Jennifer, an aspiring politician, has borrowed a large segment from a former candidate’s copyrighted advertisement for use in her opening statements in the debate.
b. John, a high school English teacher, has photocopied a chapter from a copyrighted nonfiction book for his classroom to read and discuss.
c. Janet, an advertising executive, has borrowed a tag line from another product’s copyrighted marketing materials for use in a TV ad for a competing product.
d. Joaquin, a successful musician and talented artist, has used a small portion of a copyrighted song for use in his newly released single.
Copyrights are superior to a mere patent.
Limited frequencies and high initial costs pose ________ so that few people can actually participate in the “marketplace of ideas.”
a. barriers to entry
b. cross-ownership issues
c. violations of fair use
d. freedom of speech violations
Which of the following is TRUE of the Supreme Court?
a. It plays an important role in the enforcement of general laws that apply to communications (such as the Sherman Antitrust Act).
b. It serves as the regulatory body charged with domestic trade policy, such as monitoring trade practices such as deceptive advertising.
c. It interprets challenges to laws written by Congress and rules made by the FCC and other federal agencies to see whether they are consistent with the U.S. Constitution.
d. It ultimately writes and rewrites the communications laws of the land and involves itself in various committees and subcommittees regarding such laws.
Which Amendment states: “Congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…”?
a. The First Amendment
b. The Fourth Amendment
c. The Second Amendment
d. The Eighth Amendment
The NTIA was established within the Department of Commerce to _________.
a. enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act
b. interpret First Amendment Rights
c. advise on telecommunications policy
d. prosecute deceptive advertising practices
Why are cable television, satellite radio, and streaming media not covered by obscenity laws?
a. because Congress has no legal authority over these institutions
b. because they are enterprises that began after the obscenity laws were written
c. because Congress had to draw the line somewhere, and that is where it was drawn
d. because they require an extra fee and thus do not enter the home “unbidden”
Which of the following principles prevents media giant Xfinity from sifting through all of the content that passes through their portals in an attempt to favor their own content?
a. the First Amendment
b. network neutrality
d. fair use
Dawn wrote her newspaper article about the local bank CEO’s alleged transgressions without the final approval from her editor. Days later, it was proven that the allegations of transgressions were false. Now, three weeks after the fact, she and her newspaper are being sued by the CEO. Dawn is very surprised to know that the words in her article may not be protected by the First Amendment. Why should she NOT be surprised?
a. because her article was plagiarized, and therefore is not protected by the First Amendment
b. because defamation (in this case, in the form of libel) is not protected by the First Amendment
c. because her article was considered obscene, and therefore is not protected by the First Amendment
d. because her article incited insurrection, and therefore is not protected by the First Amendment
Kiana’s sewing supplies company just purchased five of the only six existing sewing supply companies other than her own. Which of the following now exists in the sewing supply company industry?
a. an oligopoly
b. a monopoly
c. horizontal integration
d. vertical integration
Both vertical integration and horizontal integration violate the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Which of the following concepts was first established by the Graham Act of 1921?
a. universal service
b. fair use
d. barriers to entry
MediaNet, a dominant media firm, charges excessive amounts for their products, withholds many of its innovations, and regularly discourages new competitors by flexing their “corporate muscles.” Which of the following are they MOST LIKELY in violation of?
a. The Copyright Alert System
b. The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
c. The Constitution’s First Amendment
d. The 1996 Telecommunications Act
What does it mean to say that patents protect against reverse engineering?
a. Patents protect against making an invention that performs the same functions but uses different underlying technology or instruction.
b. Patents protect against making an invention that, although quite dissimilar, is sold through the same media channels.
c. Patents protect against making an invention that performs the exact opposite function as one already invented and patented.
d. Patents protect against making an invention that, while wholly different, appeals to the same general audience of users.
When a single company controls an industry, an oligopoly exists.